The micron rating of the filters in your water filtration system will determine how effective it is.
The contaminants that are removed will depend on the size of the filter, which can range from 0.0001 to 800 microns.
The higher the micron rating, the bigger the particles it can trap.
Follow us here to learn all you need to know.
What is Micron Filter Rating?
The size of the perforations in the mesh determines the micron filter rating.
This can range from 0.0001 to 800 microns, comprising materials (1)such as nylon, polyester, and polypropylene.
To put this is perspective, here are a few examples of particle or micron filter size of day-to-day materials:
|Carbon dioxide||0.00065 microns|
|Bacteria||0.3 – 60 microns|
|Tobacco smoke||.01 – 4 microns|
|Fine silt||4 – 8 microns|
|Human hair||40-300 microns|
The molecule size of any material will determine whether or not it can pass through a micron filter. If the molecules are bigger than the holes in the mesh, they will be unable to percolate through and will remain in the water or air.
The human eye can see objects that are greater than 40 microns, such as dust mites.
What is the Difference Between Micron and Mesh Filters?
Micron filters comprise various porous materials which have a specific gap size between the fibers.
Mesh filters comprise wire mesh which is measured by a number of strands or threads per linear inch.
You cannot correlate directly between mesh size and microns as the diameter of the wire itself will differ according to its manufacture.
The size of the aperture cannot be used as a micron measurement, as the greater, the number of wire strands present, the smaller the gaps between them will be, reducing the micron size.
Understanding Micron Ratings
One micron measures 1/25400 of an inch, or one inch contains 25,400 microns.
Thus, the greater the micron rating, the greater the size of the particles that can be filtered.
Here is a comparison of different micron sizes:
|Anthrax||1 – 5|
|Antiperspirant||6 – 10|
|Asbestos||0.7 – 90|
|Atmospheric Dust||0.001 – 40|
|Auto and Car Emission||1 – 150|
|Bacteria||0.3 – 60|
|Beach Sand||100 – 10000|
|Bone Dust||3 – 300|
|Bromine||0.1 – 0.7|
|Burning Wood||0.2 – 3|
|Calcium Zinc Dust||0.7 – 20|
|Carbon Black Dust||0.2 – 10|
|Cayenne Pepper||15 – 1000|
|Cement Dust||3 – 100|
|Clay, coarse||2 – 4|
|Clay, medium||1 – 2|
|Clay, fine||0.5 – 1|
|Coal Dust||1 – 100|
|Coal Flue Gas||0.08 – 0.2|
|Coffee||5 – 400|
|Combustion||0.01 – 0.1|
|Combustion-related – motor vehicles, wood burning,|
open burning, industrial processes
|up to 2.5|
|Copier Toner||0.5 – 15|
|Corn Starch||0.1 – 10|
|Dust Mites||100 – 300|
|Eye of a Needle||1230|
|Face Powder||0.1 – 30|
|Fertilizer||10 – 1000|
|Fiberglass Insulation||1 – 1000|
|Fly Ash||1 – 1000|
|Gelatin||5 – 90|
|Ginger||25 – 40|
|Grain Dusts||5 – 1000|
|Gravel, very fine (0.08 inch)||2000|
|Gravel, fine (0.16 inch)||4000|
|Gravel, medium (0.3 inch)||8000|
|Gravel, coarse (0.6 – 1.3 inches)||15000 – 30000|
|Gravel, very coarse (1.3 – 2.5 inches)||30000 – 65000|
|Ground Limestone||10 – 1000|
|Hair||5 – 200|
|Household dust||0.05 – 100|
|Human Hair||40 – 300|
|Human Sneeze||10 – 100|
|Humidifier||0.9 – 3|
|Insecticide Dusts||0.5 – 10|
|Iron Dust||4 – 20|
|Lead, solder radiator manufacturing – mean value||1.3|
|Lead, battery and lead powder manufacturing||12 – 22|
|Lead Dust||0.1 – 0.7|
|Liquid Droplets||0.5 – 5|
|Metallurgical Dust||0.1 – 1000|
|Metallurgical Fumes||0.1 – 1000|
|Milled Flour, Milled Corn||1 – 100|
|Mist||70 – 350|
|Mold||3 – 12|
|Mold Spores||10 – 30|
|Mustard||6 – 10|
|Oil Smoke||0.03 – 1|
|Paint Pigments||0.1 – 5|
|Pesticides & Herbicides||0.001|
|Pet Dander||0.5 – 100|
|Pollen||10 – 1000|
|Radioactive Fallout||0.1 – 10|
|Red Blood Cells||5 – 10|
|Rosin Smoke||0.01 – 1|
|Sand, very fine (0.0025 inch)||62|
|Sand, fine (0.005 inch)||125|
|Sand, medium (0.01 inch)||250|
|Sand, coarse (0.02 inch)||500|
|Sand, very coarse (0.02 inch)||500|
|Saw Dust||30 – 600|
|Sea Salt||0.035 – 0.5|
|Silt, coarse (0.0015)||37|
|Silt, medium (0.0006 – 0.0012 inche)||16 – 30|
|Silt, fine||8 – 13|
|Silt, very fine||4 – 8|
|Skin flakes||0.5 – 10|
|Smoke from Natural Materials||0.01 – 0.1|
|Smoke from Synthetic Materials||1 – 50|
|Smoldering or Flaming Cooking Oil||0.03 – 0.9|
|Spanish Moss Pollen||150 – 750|
|Spider web||2 – 3|
|Spores from plants||3 – 100|
|Starches||3 – 100|
|Sugars||0.0008 – 0.005|
|Talcum Dust||0.5 – 50|
|Tea Dust||8 – 300|
|Textile Dust||6 – 20|
|Textile Fibers||10 – 1000|
|Tobacco Smoke||0.01 – 4|
|Typical Atmospheric Dust||0.001 to 30|
|Viruses||0.005 – 0.3|
|Yeast Cells||1 – 50|
This will filter out some bacteria, including anthrax, some molds, coffee granules, and paint pigments.
This will filter out red blood cells, carbon dust, fertilizers, and insecticides.
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This will filter out white blood cells, salt, sand and rust particles.
This will filter out algae, solvents, silt and milled flour.
This will filter out coal dust, pet dander, human hair, and plant spores.
Which Micron Filter Size is Best for Me?
Before you decide on which filter and which micron is best suited to your needs, you need to know what contaminants or other materials are in your water.
We know that smaller micron sizes will remove more material, but that may slow down your water flow.
Filters with smaller micron ratings will have to be replaced regularly due to the debris they accumulate.
You may find that it is better to have more than one filter that will progressively remove particles in your water. These would be installed from the coarsest to the finest.
Why Does Micron Size Matter?
The smaller the micron size, the more contaminants are removed during the filtration process.
If you are mainly concerned with removing bacteria, viruses and parasites, a one micron filter will suffice.
If you need to remove sand and silt and other solids, you will need a larger micron size filter, or a series of filters of different micron sizes.
Smaller micron filters may cost more, but will be better for your health in the long term.
What Are Nominal and Absolute Micron Filters?
All filters, regardless of their micron rating, are effective at removing impurities to some degree.
Nominal filters will remove most of the defined pollutants for its particular rating, from about 60% to 98% efficiency levels.
This will vary according to the extent of the pollution and the environment. The capacity of filters may also vary by manufacturer.
Nominal filters will possibly only remove 70% – 80% of the bacteria that cause Cryptosporidium (2), a form of gastroenteritis that will lead to diarrhea and vomiting.
Absolute filters will filter 100% of contaminants at their micron rating. They are tested more exhaustively, including for:
- Particle size
Absolute filters may be constructed of a solid layer like ceramic, metal or Teflon. The holes are a regular size and are created using a nuclear (3)process.
Absolute filters are used in extreme sterile environments such as NASA.
To ensure that a filter is ‘absolute’, it should include the wording “NSF 53” or “NSF 58” as well as “cyst reduction” or “cyst removal”. Any product that does not feature one or more of these clauses cannot be deemed to be an absolute filter.
What Micron Filter Do I Need for My Well Water?
Filters with micron sizes of between 0.5 – 2 will remove the majority of water contaminants.
You may want to install depth filters, where the micron sizes vary from larger to smaller. The larger holes trap larger toxins and scale down to smaller micron ratings that will catch bacteria and viruses.
Our Recommended Sediment Filter for Well Water in 2021
For water sources with a large surface area, you may consider a pleated filter that can net substances between 30-500 microns. These can also be used for finer filtration of required.
Whatever filtration system you are using, it will be necessary to consider the micron rating of each filter.
The micron ratings used in various categories of filtration include:
|Reverse osmosis||0.0001 micron|
|Particle filtration||0.3 micron|
All filters must be inspected and either cleaned or replaced at least once a year, or more often if you deem it necessary.
This is a very good article, I just have one issue. Your lower range for virus size is incorrect by an order of magnitude.
I would like to direct you to this https://youtu.be/NyGLdVOmtxI well cited and research video explaining why. (The source of this figure is from before we had electron microscopes).